In the interwar years, the theory was, all out war, total war. Destroy the cities, destroy the factories, destroy the workers, kill the means of production, destroy morale and the will to go on.
Aerial bombing may have had impact on Arab tribes, possibly because the experience was alien to them
Off the scale was kill millions, wipe out the cities.
Whilst this may be possible today, with the exception of Guernica, which even horrifies today, and Dresden, it was not possible.
Analysis of aerial footage, showed only about five percent of the targets were hit, and from British experience, it was known it was possible to recover very quickly, even when factories were damaged.
Each bomber produced had on average a lifetime of fourteen operational sorties. How best to make use of limited resources?
It was decided to change tack, destroy the housing, an easier target to hit. If the workers had nowhere to live, they would be demoralised.
But again, what basis was there for this?
It was decided to carry out a survey of children, what was their experience of bombing, the 1942 British bombing survey.
Two cities were chosen, Birmingham and Hull. The children were asked to write essays, the essays were then analysed to see what understanding could be drawn from those essays.
The children aged 10 to 12 years old, were asked to write an essay What Happened to Me and What I Did in the Air Raids.
Mrs Ingram got an incendiary bomb in her back bedroom and my father and brother put it out.
…there was a little bang and my brother said that he would have to go out as it was a firebomb and he would have to put it out. While he was putting it out a bomb dropped and blew him inside the shelter again.
When we got into the house there wasn’t half a mess. I started to tidy up and then I lighted [sic] the fire and made my mother and the two other children a nice hot cup of tea.
I was glad that I could do something to help, for there was a lady who came into our shelter who was very frightened. She had a little child of one and a half years. The lady was trembling, I took the little baby, and every time a bomb came down I threw a pillow over myself and the little girl, who was called Sheila. She kept crying but at last I hushed her to sleep.
What these essays showed was the children were coping, the families were coping. They show the normality, life went on, a bomb may have dropped, put it right with a nice cup of tea.
Dad may be working during the day, on fire watch at night. If injured, he came home, was patched up by Mum and went straight back out again.
Brother helped put out the fires.
Mum looked after the household possessions, tidied and cleaned up the house after a bombing raid.
Sister helped Mum keep order, looked after the little ones, made a nice hot cup of tea.
They saw after the initial horror of the bombing raids, the city was not destroyed, they could cope, life went, you kept on smiling. You may be afraid, but that was normal to be afraid.
If the intention was to reduce productivity capacity, or destroy morale, it failed.
This then questioned the effectiveness of bombing German cities.
It also raises question of why the policy of evacuating children from the cities to the countryside. No only were they able to cope, they actually provided a support mechanism for the family.
And we know, when children were evacuated, they very quickly returned home.
A fatalistic attitude, if we are going to die, we may as well all die together.
We see this today in Syria. Assad does not control the countryside. The only way he controls the cities is by reducing to rubble.
And Assad does not cow the people. When they are finally forced to leave, they are still defiant, the children are defiant. The children even go on-line and record their experiences to let the world know.
The only main difference between Syria and WWII, is that WWII, very clearly defined roles between men and women, whereas in the north of Syria there are very effective Kurdish all-women fighting units.
A future research project, ask the children from Aleppo to write an essay What Happened to Me and What I Did in the Bombing Raids.
An excellent talk by Dr James Greenhalgh, senior lecturer, at University of Lincoln Riseholme Campus.
Dr James Greenhalgh is author of a forthcoming book on this topic.
- “Till we hear the last all clear”: gender and the presentation of self in young girls’ writing about the bombing of Hull during the Second World War
- Portuguese Artist Recreates Picasso’s ‘Guernica’ In Reaction To The Syrian War
- Trying to follow what is going on in Syria and why?