Lincoln coronavirus lockdown day one hundred and two

April 20, 2021

A lovely warm sunny day, though mid-afternoon it turned cold.

Bus into Lincoln very busy. In the town, or at least Sincil Street, not as busy as last week. I did not venture into the High Street until late afternoon.

Lakeland, as always, empty. Two cappuccino cups on display, but not on sale anywhere. Lady found me a box, four cappuccino cups, £10, one cup missing, two pounds knocked off. Er, should that not be more than two pounds knocked off?

I picked up Eden compostable coffee pods, Tried later. Disgusting, unpleasant undrinkable coffee.

I have a haircut from the hairdresser that has relocated from Sincil Street. Last week impossible, today walk in. Boss leaves as I arrive. I am told busy in the morning. No so good, tiny space, no ventilation. Door should remain open.

Back way up Steep Hill.

Looked in Imperial Teas, dropped off three varieties of green coffee beans from Cameroon. Who I wished to see only there on Monday.

Later, either piss poor service or blatant racism at The Lion and Snake.

I would have had fish n chips from, Elite on the Bail, but turned too cool to sit on the little square.

A sausage roll from Redhill Farm shop.

Looked back in Imperial Teas. Picked up a French Press, a bar of chocolate. I could not believe what I was seeing, Panama Geisha from the Esmeralda Estate. Could I resist? Er, no. £23 for 125g.

In 2005, a Geisha lot won the Best of Panama competition. The lot was grown by the Peterson Family at Finca Esmeralda. The lot at the time sold for a record-setting $350 per pound, ie £590 a kilo. [see The Story of Geisha]

Top end of town, chatted with three Vietnamese girls, day out from Nottingham where they are studying. They walk with me to Coffee Aroma, but not possible to sit outside, all tables taken. I grab a takeaway. They head off for the station.

I had earlier told them of places to eat, where to find coffee and chocolate in Nottingham. Also Lincoln.

As they left they thanked me for the conversation. They said no one stops and talks to them. A very sad refection of our society.

I just make bus. Actually a different bus, no longer PC Coaches, a brand new bus, a different bus company.

The Lion and Snake

April 20, 2021

Piss poor service or racist pub?

The Lion and Snake a pub with appalling reputation, Saturday afternoon rowdy drunks, coronavirus super spreader, at night it gets worse, urinating up the wall, brawls in the street.

Not somewhere I would wish to frequent.

A friend asked me to join her. She must have been there about twenty minutes. I waited for what must have been a further twenty minutes, no one came to our table, staff walked by ignoring us.

She did not have a drink. I asked had no one taken her order? She said yes. How long to serve a drink? She tried to catch attention of staff, they ignored her.

I said, I do not tolerate this treatment, we should walk out. Or at least go to the pub next door, The Prince of Wales, where are not treated in this way.

She was reluctant to leave and decided to stay, I left.

I would add, my friend is Black.

Which leaves my original question, piss-poor service or racist pub? She was the only Black person sat in the grounds of the pub. No one else was having these problem of piss poor service.

The local licencing authority should have closed this pub last year, stripped landlord of licence.

Coffee in Brazil is Black

April 19, 2021

Coffee in Brazil is Black, it was built on the back of slaves brought from West Africa in slave ships

I prefer to see my mother rot than sign a letter of liberty for my slaves. — Monito Campert, Brazilian coffee baron, 1888

The cost of liberty is less than the price of repression. — W E B DuBois

Coffee was introduced to the Portuguese colony of Brazil by Francisco Melo Palheta in 1727. He acquired coffee beans by dubious means when asked to help solve a dispute between Dutch and French colonies in Guiana.  On his return to Brazil he planted the seeds in Para, but until 1822 coffee remained a minor crop compared with sugar. 

Coffee became an important crop when planted in the mountainous Paraiba valley south of Rio, forests cleared, slash and burn, deep purple soil, terra roxa, the coffee seeds planted in the ash, when exhausted, clear more forest, slash and burn.

Coffee estates, fazendas, were huge, two, three, four millions trees. The largest belonging to Francesco Shmidt was a fazenda of seven million coffee trees, employing 40,000 workers. On the fazendas a single slave would tend four to seven thousand coffee plants.

The early coffee plantations in Brazil were a slave economy, 40% of the slaves from West Africa ended up in Brazil.

Over two centuries, Brazil imported three million slaves to work the private fiefdoms that were the coffee estates, an additional five million worked the sugar plantations. To put these figures in context, around half a millions slaves were shipped to North America.

The plantation slave economy is reflected in modern day Brazil. Ten per cent of the population own over 50% of the wealth. Descendants of slaves are ten times more like to be illiterate or destitute.

An IBGE Agro Census (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) carried out between 2017 and 2018, Brazil has five million agricultural establishments, 45.4% are run by white producers. Brown producers have 44.5%, while 8.4% are owned by blacks, 1.1% by indigenous and 0.6% by yellow. There are 2.2 million white producers and 2.6 million black and brown ones, considering the sum of all types of agricultural properties, regardless of the culture and the size of the land.

In large properties, there are almost no black producers. Of the 1,559 farms with more than 10,000 hectares, for example, 1,232 are run by whites, 270 by browns and only 25 by blacks. The ratio is four white producers to one black or brown producer. As for small properties, with fewer than five hectares, the reality is reversed: blacks and browns are the majority.

When considering the extent of the properties of each ethnic group, the survey portrays a great inequality: white producers occupy 208 million hectares, or 59.4% of the total area of ​​establishments, while blacks and browns have, together, less than half of that, that is, 99 million hectares or 28%.

The distortion is even more profound than the distribution of national income found in the Continuous National Household Sample Survey (Continuous Pnad) in 2015, according to which whites hold 59% of the country’s wealth, while browns hold 33% and blacks 7%.

To put these figures in context, only one or two per cent of Black Americans own land, ie even worse than Brazil.

A Black farm owner, passers by ask, who owns the land. 

When Phyllis Johnson visited a group in Brazil, the Black female coffee workers could hardly believe their eyes when a Black woman stepped out of the car, they were no longer invisible. They were as proud of their work in coffee as the White coffee farmers who owned the land.

Coffee baron Grao-Mogul was one of the most notorious of the slave owners. If a child fell ill or died, the mother was punished for damage or loss of his property. He would hold banquets at his mansion, when food and drink consumed, the men would descend into the cellar below his house to take their pleasure of the female slaves tied up. 

Brazil was the last of the Western countries to abolish slavery, an internal slave market developed when the British intercepted slave ships. It was not until 1871 Brazil passed the Law of the Free Womb making children of slaves free at birth, followed in 1888 by the Golden Law freeing all slaves. Not that the freed slaves were much better off, the only employment was on the plantations under the same conditions.

When slavery was abolished, the plantations imported cheap labour from southern Europe.

An agricultural census of Sao Paulo State in 1905, sixty-five per cent of the workforce on 21,000 coffee farms was foreign born. The top 20% of the farmers controlled 83% of the land, produced 75% of the coffee, employed 67% of the agricultural workforce.

Coffee production in Brazil:

  • 1871 3 millions sacks
  • 1900 15 million sacks
  • 1930 25 million sacks
  • 2020 69 million sacks

Coffee production boomed from 1820 onward. By 1830 Brazil produced thirty per cent of the world’s coffee, by 1840 forty per cent.

Little has changed in Brazil, fascist President Bolsonaro is waging a war of genocide against the poor with coronavirus, his supporters evangelicals and wealthy owners of large estates who accrued their wealth through slavery. 

Phyllis Johnson is an African American whose widowed mother worked the family cotton farm in Arkansas in order to support her seven children who studied and graduated. She is President and co-founder and CEO of BD Imports a coffee importer and author of The Triumph: Black Brazilians in Coffee.

A well deserved coffee break

April 18, 2021

Peas sowed, lawns mowed, onion sets sowed, a soak in the bath, a very late breakfast.

Coffee.

A well deserved tea break

April 18, 2021

Peas sown. With a rake, rake out soil to a depth of about an inch, add compost, sow peas, then rake back the soil.

At the beginning of the year I made a mistake, I added to old well rotted compost heap, I should have started a new compost heap. Today, start a new compost heap. I will slowly transfer what was added to the old heap. On the garden, a pile of weeds from Friday, shake loose the soil, then add grass cuttings.

I am also adding spent compostable coffee pods. How will they fare?

Half the lawn mown. Time for a break.

To do, mow front lawns plant onion sets.

For Whom the Bell Tolls

April 18, 2021

Saturday a lovely sunny day, lockdown day ninety-nine.

Tuesday I expected the bus to be busy, two passengers. Saturday I expected the bus to be busy, two passengers.

As last week, very little traffic into Lincoln. But, as Tuesday, a lot of traffic within the town centre.

Tuesday I expected the town to be busy, it was but not as bad as I had feared.

Saturday it was horrendous far worse than I expected. The town centre packed with people, worse than anything since August, apart from when the dysfunctional city council decided to hold a junk food festival in the middle of a pandemic. Far too many people.

I was pleased to find PC Coaches now running the Walk and Ride. I hopped on, saved time, I was on my way to the farmers market.

Fruit and vegetable stall in Lincoln Central Market told me there was a famers market. The last three months there has been no farmers market, nor was there one in November.

Lots of tourists milling around, long queue outside the ice cream shop. Even the Tourist Information Office was open.

Chat with some of the stall holders. Cheese stall I asked why the milk was semi-skilled. I was told it was not, straight out of the cow. Vegans, is the cheese vegan, no it is real milk from a grass-grazed vegan cow.

Crass stupidity of environmental health officer, objecting to the sanitiser wipes on the stall.

Long chat with man selling soap. He said too many are melt and pour. Sums up many selling what is claimed to be artisan chocolate.

A new charity shop in Bailgate, or so I thought, except not, has a board outside saying a charity shop.

Excellent haddock and chips from Elite on the Bail. And yet quiet, no queue, and in the little square where I sit, not busy.

The Snake and Lion not as bad as I expected.

I kept looking a my, watch had it stopped, why the wrong time? No, it was the tolling of a bell from Lincoln Cathedral for the funeral of Prince Philip.

Three o’clock, a minute’s silence for the funeral of Prince Philip. Not respected by the drunken scum at The Lion and Snake.

Walking past The Lion and Snake after eating my lunch, noisy, drunken scum shouting, no social distancing. Why is this pub not shut down and landlord stripped of licence? Last year, fights in the street, urinating up the wall. Saturday I saw no portaloos. I was told Friday night was bad. At a guess, far worse Saturday night.

Walking sown Steep Hill, surprised to find the shop selling Lincolnshire produce not open.

I looked in Imperial Teas. I wished to tell the owner, green bens from Cameroon had arrived. But now only there on a Monday. I left a message

The young lady, always helpful, has done an excellent job on their displays. But a customer wished to enter. I pop back out then another customer wished to come in.

I wanted a French Press. I wanted to look at several, luckily on display. Too much to carry. I will try another day.

Glassware for tea and coffee I have never seen before. Simple Lab a Hong Kong based company.

I tried to remember, of course, I forgot. I did take photos, but could not read.

I looked up on their website. No name, other than the name of any individual piece. Check out their website, stunning photos. Imperial Teas must have the largest collection of tea and coffee making paraphernalia of any site.

I worked backwards, and found the company, Hong Kong based Simple Lab, the name I could not remember. I found through the name of a range of products Micro.

Long queue outside ice cream parlour on The Strait. I would not recommend.

I looked in the art shop on The Strait, opposite the ice cream parlour. I often pass by and look in their window, but have never in the past ventured inside. Upstairs a a small gallery. Very steep and narrow stairs to climb.

Sit outside Coffee Aroma with a coffee. Now too cold.

Whilst sat outside Coffee Aroma, an idiot drives through the pedestrianised street the wrong way, turns around, parks outside the bank, then goes for a walk.

Walking through Sincil Street heading to the Bus Station, an idiot drives through, turns around, parks outside Everyman Cinema.

Hunter’s chicken stir-fry

April 16, 2021

In France a chicken chasseur, in Italy chicken cacciatore. The names as varied as the ingredients and method of preparation, strips of chicken breast or whole chickens thighs, but in essence saute the chicken, then it morphs into a hot pot or stew with the addition of mushrooms, vegetables, spices and wine.

The French explanation, hunting in the forest for chickens (sounds implausible hunting for chickens, wild boar yes, chickens no), whilst out in the forest, forage for mushrooms, when arrive back home, hand to the chef who will pop in a pot with whatever is available.

In this recipe, we start as stir-fry, then simmer in wine and a little water. Served with brown basmati rice.

Brown basmati rice simmer for twenty minutes.

Slice cherry tomatoes in half, slice one red onion, slice chestnut mushrooms.

Slosh of extra virgin cold pressed rapeseed oil in a large flying pan, add strips of chicken breast, sear both sides.

Remove chicken, pop on a plate.

Slosh more oil, add tomatoes, onion, chopped up ginger, mushrooms, stir-fry.

Add thyme and bay leaf.

Add the seared chicken.

Sir fry for a few minutes.

Add wine, chicken bouillon, tomato puree, tarragon, parsley, water if needed, simmer for several minutes.

Serve with the basmati rice.

Tasty.

One change I would make, once in season, new potatoes to replace the rice.

Examples of variations of the dish, Italian and French. 

Coffee and slavery

April 16, 2021

The dark colonial past of coffee that changed coffee from a luxury few could afford to the commodity we know today.

The negroe is that creature that we are forced to keep in his natural state of thraldom to obtain from him the requisite services; because … under a different condition he would not labour. — coffee grower P J Laborie, The Coffee Planter of Saint Domingo, 1798

How much would you pay for a cup of coffee? Ten dollars, thirty-six dollars?

A conversation I have occasionally had in a coffee shop. Buy in high quality coffee, serve as a guest coffee at five dollars a cup. Would the clientele be willing to pay for something special?

A couple of years ago, Taf Coffee, a pour over five euros for two cups of coffee, for coffee from the estate of Ninety Plus.

Stewart Lee Allen, The Devil’s Cup:

In the late 1600s, Louis XV reportedly spent the equivalent of fifteen thousand dollars a year to feed his daughter’s coffee habit. By 1740 the price had fallen to 15 cents a cup, and even the lowliest lumpens could afford a buzz.

It was only a matter of time before coffee spread from Arabia into the Ottoman Empire, and from there into Europe.

The first recorded coffee in Europe, was in Venice, one of the great city-state trading nations, the estate of a murdered Turkish businessman in 1575 included coffee making equipment.  The first coffee shop opened in 1683, by 1759 the Venice City authorities placed a limit of 204 coffee shops, breached within four years.

Coffee used to be a luxury few could afford. It was colonisation and slavery that turned coffee into a commodity.

Coffee seedlings or beans were smuggled to India; from India, the Dutch established plantations in Java. The Dutch kept the local elite in power,  tribute was paid in coffee, subsistence farmers on Java were forced to work the plantations to the neglect of their own crops.

The French established coffee on the island of Bourbon, now Réunion, also in their Caribbean territories starting with Martinique.

Stewart Lee Allen in The Devil’s Cup discusses in some detail, French naval officer Gabriel de Clieu, smuggling plants stolen from the King, given to the King by the Mayor of Amsterdam, taking seedlings to Martinique, his heroic efforts to keep the plants alive when water was rationed on the ship.

The British established coffee on Ceylon. Ceylon is now known for tea, when the British established coffee, using Tamils shipped in from India, by the late 1860s Ceylon had overtaken Java as the world’s leading exporter of coffee. Coffee leaf rust then struck.

Trees over a hundred yeas old have been found in Sri Lanka, the remnants of the old coffee plantations established by the British, the best coffee cherries selected, seedlings grown, new plantations established. I have tasted the coffee from these trees, I have a few coffee beans roasted in Sri Lanka, are hoping to ship over green beans and roast in England.

Africans captured and traded African slaves, British-made goods offloaded, slaves loaded onto the slave ships.

The conditions were atrocious. On the two lower decks barrels, the deck between and below the main deck, slaves lined up in shackles. If a slave fell sick tossed overboard as of little value.

The slaves were shipped to the Caribbean, for sugar and coffee plantations. Sugar plantations on the low lying coastal plains, inland small coffee plantations in the mountains.

A guide to growing coffee on Saint Dominique The Coffee Planter of Saint Domingo by the coffee grower P J Laborie in 1798 describes all stages of coffee growing, from clearing the land to bagging the beans. He even describes the process for washed processing of the coffee cherries, ‘West Indian process’, using water channels then pass through a series of graters. The dark side of the guide, what to look for when buying slaves, how to treat the slaves.

The negroe is that creature that we are forced to keep in his natural state of thraldom to obtain from him the requisite services; because … under a different condition he would not labour.

P J Laborie gives advice on what to look for when buying slaves, features such as an open clear countenance, a clean and lively eye, sound teeth, sinewy arms, dry and large hands, strong loins and haunches and an easy and free movement of the limbs. On purchase the slaves had to be purged of any diseases, forced to drink ‘ sudorific potions’, usually sea water, to rid them of disease, and the ‘unpleasant but necessary’ act of branding.

New slaves had to be ‘seasoned’, introduced slowly to the work, light labour, weeding and gardening, before working sunrise to sunset on the plantations. Laborie preferred young slaves as could be formed to ‘the Master’s own ideas’. Discipline was maintained with a whip wielded by a trusted slave. Laborie details the knots on the whips and advises keeping the whips clean to avoid spread of disease from one slave to another.

The Dutch acquired Suriname from the British, they did a swap with New York. The Dutch had acquired what was then known as  manaháhtaan in 1624 from its inhabitants Lenape Native Indians in exchange for beads, knives, trinkets and guilders.

In Java, the Dutch used forced labour of local sustenance farmers, in Suriname they imported slaves.

Suriname is where man’s inhumanity to man reached its zenith.

In 1738, a slave ship sailing up river in Suriname hit a storm, around 700 slaves on board, the captain told the crew to lock the hold to stop the slaves escaping whilst the crew took to the lifeboats, 664 died when the ship, went down. the crew survived.

1735

  • Yemen $13-41 / lb
  • Java $9-24 / lb
  • Suriname $8-26 / lb

1760

  • Yemen $12-80 / lb
  • Suriname $5-01 / lb

Fast forward another 100 years to around the middle of the 1800s and coffee from the Suriname slave plantation has fallen to around $2 a pound.

If we look at the price of coffee on exchanges we see how the price fell from a luxury to a commodity, the impact of colonisation and cheap labour.

If we look at the impact of lower coffee prices on consumption we can see within a hundred years coffee drunk by the elite in opulent surroundings to a peasant woman hawking takeaway coffee on the street.

Café Procope established in 1686 by Italian Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli lays claim to be the oldest and one of the most famous Parisian restaurant or cafés. It was the original European ‘Literary Café’ prototype. Located in the 6th arrondissement on Paris’ Left Bank, and steps from Boulevard Saint-Germain, it retains its former glory and original charm. It was here the literati and men of letters drank coffee, Rousseau, Denis Diderot and Voltaire are just a few of those who frequented the café and heightened its image, that of an authentic opulent oriental coffee house

Café Procope became the model across 18th century Europe for the grand café, Florian’s in Venice, Caffé Greco in Rome.

The Grand Café in Oxford, a Grade II listed building, lays claim to be on the site of the oldest coffee shop in England, 1650 according to Samuel Pepys’ Diary,

According to a number of; sources, including Samuel Pepys, a Jewish entrepreneur named Jacob established the first English coffee house in 1650.The Life and Times of Anthony Wood, Antiquary of Oxford 1632-1695:

This year [1651] Jacob the Jew opened a coffey house at the Angel in the parish of S. Peter, in the East Oxon; and there it was by some, who delighted in noveltie, drank. When he left Oxon, he sold it in Old Southampton buildings in Holborne neare London, and was living in 1671.

Across the road from The Grand Café a greasy spoon cafe lays claim to be the oldest coffee shop, Queen’s Lane Coffee House Oxford, established 1654.

The Queens Lane Coffee House is reputed to be the oldest continually working coffee house – not only in Oxford but the whole of Europe. It first opened its doors in 1654, in the turmoil following the English Civil War, just before the Great Fire of London. It has been serving Oxford without a break ever since.

A century on from the establishment of Café Procope we have a woman hawking coffee in the street to passers-by.

The arrival of coffee shops in England coincided with the English  Civil War and the rise of Protestantism across Europe.  Water was not safe to drink, the people drank beer, were probably not sober from breakfast onwards. Nutrition was beer and bread, in Germany beer soup.

Coffee was seen by Puritans as The Great Soberer.

When the sweet Poison of the Treacherous Grape,
Had Acted on the world a General Rape;
Drowning our very Reason and our Souls
In such deep Seas of large o’reflowing Bowls,
That New Philosophers Swore they could feel
The Earth to Stagger, as her Sons did Reel:
When Foggy Ale, leavying up mighty Trains
Of muddy Vapours, had besieg’d our Brains;
And Drink, Rebellion, and Religion too,
Made Men so Mad, they knew not what to do;
Then Heaven in Pity, to Effect our Cure,
And stop the Ragings of that Calenture,
First sent amongst us this All-healing-Berry,
At once to make us both Sober and Merry.
Arabian Coffee, a Rich Cordial
To Purse and Person Beneficial,
Which of so many Vertues doth partake,
Its Country’s called Felix for its sake.
From the Rich Chambers of the Rising Sun,
Where Arts, and all good Fashions first begun,
Where Earth with Choicest Rarities is blest,
And dying Phoenix builds Her wondrous Nest:
COFFEE arrives, that Grave and wholesome Liquor,
That heals the Stomach, makes the Genius quicker,
Relieve, the Memory, Revives the Sad,
And chears the Spirits, without making Mad;  …

Coffee houses in England were places to meet, penny universities.

Edward Lloyd opened Lloyd’s Coffee House in London in 1687 or 1688, a meeting place for those in maritime occupations, shipping agents, seamen, insurers, bankers. People went to Lloyd’s to hear the latest news.  Lloyd published a newssheet ‘Lloyd’s News’. From this coffee house evolved Lloyd’s of London.

Tattler was founded in a coffee house. The editor Richard Steele gave his address as the coffeehouse Grecian.

 

Documents c 1700 cite the existence of some three thousand coffee houses in London. [see Tastes of Paradise]

One pound of coffee on the Amsterdam Coffee Exchange  in 1735 would have cost $13-41. Today the cost of green beans around a dollar a pound.  In three hundred years, the price of coffee has fallen thirteen fold.

Liverpool, Bristol, Amsterdam, their wealth was built on sugar, coffee and slavery.  When you grab a takeaway coffee from a corporate chain, a bag of cheap commodity coffee off the supermarket shelf, pick up a bar of industrial chocolate at the checkout, you are supporting the post-colonial legacy of slavery.

Please sit and relax in an indie coffee shop with a coffee served in glass or ceramic, buy coffee from a reputable roastery, chocolate from a bean-to-bar chocolate maker, people who care, who treat coffee and chocolate with the respect it deserves.

A History of Coffee a collaboration between James Harper of  Filter Stories podcast and Jonathan Morris, Professor of History and author of Coffee: A Global History.

Spinach tomato and butterbean curry

April 15, 2021

Cherry tomatoes, sliced in half, cut side upwards in roasting tray, slosh of extra virgin cold pressed rapeseed oil, oven fan 200C for twenty minutes.

Peel and slice garlic and ginger, deseed and slice red chilli pepper, chop coriander, in pot with with oil, simmer for about a minute.

Add to the pot contents of curry spice pot.

Note: Contents of curry pot spices not curry powder.

  • 1/2 tbsp dried turmeric
  • 1 tsp garam masala
  • 1 tsp cumin seeds
  • 1 tsp mustard seeds

Add to the pot, rinsed butterbeans.

Add to the pot, coconut milk. Rinse tin, add a little water.

Simmer for around ten minutes.

In small saucepan half a mug of basmati rice, a mug of water, add cinnamon stick and two star anise, a pinch of salt, simmer for around ten minutes.

Remove from oven, add tomatoes to curry saucepan.

Rinse and add handfuls of spinach to the curry saucepan.

Remove cinnamon stick and the two star anise, drain the rice and serve.

Add contents of curry pot to the rice.

Tasty, but and a big but, somewhat bland and insipid. I think mistake was to add water to the curry.

A vegan dish, but I felt missing something. Maybe meat.

Amazon under threat in Brazil

April 15, 2021

The Indigenous People of the Amazon are under attack.

President of Brazil Bolsonaro wants to open up some of the most fragile rainforest to predatory mining companies.

Bolsonaro says it’s his ‘dream’ to open up the Amazon rainforest for mining but for the Indigenous People who call it their home, it’s a nightmare.

Ripping up the land to mine for gold and diamonds will devastate the precious ecosystems and the Indigenous communities who have protected these sacred lands for years.

Thirty years ago Brazil’s constitution put these Indigenous lands out of bounds.

But ever since Bolsonaro came to power, mining giants and small-time prospectors have been clamouring to get their hands on the Amazon’s treasures. Unless we stand-up and stop Bolsonaro’s plan, this could be their golden ticket.

This attack on these Indigenous Peoples’ lands is an attack on all of us. Our survival depends on the Amazon rainforest, and the Indigenous People that nurture it.

Now those fighting on the frontlines, like our allies at the Articulation of Indigenous Peoples of Brazil and the Pariri Indigenous Association need our help. Let’s stand with them in their hour of need.

Please sign the SumofUs petition calling on Members of the Chamber of Deputies to stop this destruction of the Amazon.

We call on you to vote against Bill 191/2020 and continue to uphold the ban on mining and water companies accessing constitutionally-protected Indigenous lands.

Contrast Brazil with Peru. In Peru, cooperation with indigenous communities, growing of coffee in the shade under the canopy of the trees is helping to protect the Amazon.


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